Last updated December 12, 2022.
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People who are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or feeding human milk (including expressed/pumped milk or direct breast/chestfeeding) may have questions about COVID-19. If you have questions or concerns, it’s important for you to talk with a health care professional.
The World Health Organization has a good FAQ on pregnancy and breastfeeding that addresses concerns about people who are pregnant and may have COVID-19. CDC’s website also has more information on many of the questions listed below.
Talk with your health care providers, as they can provide the best guidance about giving birth and feeding your child human milk during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Pregnancy during the COVID-19 pandemic
Am I at higher risk of COVID-19 if I’m pregnant?
Studies show if you are pregnant or were recently pregnant, you are at higher risk of getting severely ill from COVID-19. Severe illness means a person with COVID-19 may need hospitalization, intensive care (ICU), and a ventilator or special equipment to help them breathe. Pregnant people with COVID-19 who become severely ill can die. For more information on what increases your risk of severe illness from COVID-19, visit CDC’s website.
Pregnant people who get sick with COVID-19 may be at increased risk for other pregnancy complications, including preterm birth (earlier than 37 weeks) and stillbirth. If you are sick or have been exposed to COVID-19, you should contact your health care provider. See CDC’s website for more information.
What precautions should I take to avoid getting COVID-19?
The best way to protect yourself and your baby from COVID-19 is to get vaccinated, including with an omicron vaccine when it is time to get one. There is now more evidence than ever about the safety and effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy. The evidence suggests the benefits of receiving a COVID-19 vaccine outweigh any known or potential risks of vaccination during pregnancy. For more information about the safety and effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy, visit CDC’s website.
Additional actions you can take to protect yourself include wearing a well-fitted mask in public, keeping your distance from people who don’t live with you, washing your hands frequently, and limiting gatherings. These precautions are especially important if you live in an area where COVID-19 is spreading widely.
How can I be sure it’s safe to get the COVID-19 vaccine while I’m pregnant?
Based on new safety data in pregnant and chest/breastfeeding people, CDC recommends all people aged 6 months and older get vaccinated against COVID-19, including people who are pregnant, chest/breastfeeding, trying to get pregnant, and who might get pregnant in the future, as well as people who received doses of the vaccine or had a COVID-19 infection before pregnancy.
CDC and the FDA have been watching the research closely to make sure it’s safe for pregnant and chest/breastfeeding people to get the COVID-19 vaccines. There are systems in place to make sure CDC knows about any safety issues related to the vaccines. The data collected by these systems shows that people who got vaccinated while they were pregnant went on to have healthy babies.
COVID-19 vaccines do not cause infection, including in pregnant people or their babies. None of the COVID-19 vaccines contain the live virus that causes COVID-19, so a COVID-19 vaccine cannot make anyone sick with COVID-19, including pregnant people or their babies.
Researchers didn’t find safety concerns for pregnant people or their babies. There is no evidence that getting a COVID-19 vaccine causes an increased risk of pregnancy complications.
Scientists have not found an increased risk for miscarriage or fertility issues related to the vaccine.
Data show receiving the COVID-19 vaccine during pregnancy lowered the risk of getting sick from COVID-19. Antibodies from vaccination are passed onto and may help to protect your baby against COVID-19 after birth.
Side effects can happen after getting a COVID-19 vaccine. If you have a fever following vaccination, you should take acetaminophen (Tylenol) to reduce the risks associated with having a fever during pregnancy. Learn more about Possible Side Effects After Getting a COVID-19 Vaccine.
If you are pregnant and have questions about COVID-19 vaccine, speaking with your health care provider might help. You can also contact MotherToBaby to speak with experts confidentially in English or Spanish by phone, text, or online chat. Connect with MotherToBaby for free Monday through Friday, 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. MT:
Text 855-999-3525 (standard messaging rates may apply).
Chat live or send an email: mothertobaby.org/ask-an-expert/.
Are there other vaccines I should get while I’m pregnant?
Getting other recommended vaccines during pregnancy can help protect you and your baby from other respiratory illnesses that have similar symptoms to COVID-19. This includes getting vaccinated against the flu every year and whooping cough (Tdap) during each pregnancy. Others living in your household should also get vaccinated to protect themselves and you.
What should I do if I’m trying to get pregnant or might become pregnant soon?
Whether you are trying to get pregnant or planning to become pregnant in the future, the best way to protect yourself from COVID-19 is to get vaccinated and take additional actions to protect yourself from infection. These include wearing a mask in public, washing your hands frequently, and limiting gatherings. There is now more data than ever about the safety and effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccination. There is no evidence that COVID-19 vaccination causes problems with fertility. See CDC’s website for more information.
What should I do if I’m worried about going into the office/clinic for appointments?
It is important that you continue to receive care throughout your pregnancy. Ask your health care professional about the best way to continue your appointments throughout your pregnancy, even if you are not going to appointments in person. Some health care providers are doing visits through telephone or video calls.
If I’m pregnant and contract COVID-19, will my baby get COVID-19?
Based on current research, it appears unlikely that pregnant people pass COVID-19 to their baby before or during birth. COVID-19 has not been detected in amniotic fluid, human milk, or other birth samples. However, after birth a newborn can contract COVID-19 from the birth parent or other people. See CDC's website for more information.
If I’m pregnant and have tested positive for COVID-19, can I get medicine?
Yes. Pregnant people who have COVID-19 may be able to get medicine to help them recover. Talk with a health care professional about COVID-19 medicine. It’s important that you ask about treatment as soon as possible after testing positive. Medicine for COVID-19 needs to be taken within a few days of when you started feeling sick to work well. Learn more about medicine for COVID-19.
How many people can be present in the room during my birth?
Talk to the hospital, birthing center, or your health care professional about the COVID-19 policies they may have in place. You have the right to receive high quality care, including having a companion of your choice at your delivery.
If I have COVID-19 at the time of my birth, will my baby be able to stay with me?
Hospitals are taking precautions when caring for people who have tested positive or are suspected of having COVID-19 at the time of their birth to prevent spreading the infection to the baby. The choice of whether to have your baby in your hospital room with you should be made by you and your health care team. Your providers will talk with you about a plan to protect your baby from getting COVID-19 that may include hand washing, wearing a mask, and physically distancing yourself from your baby when you are not chest/breastfeeding. You have a right to actively participate in the conversation with your health care provider in your preferred language and ultimately decide how to care for your baby. See CDC's website for more information.
What can I do if I am worried about my emotional health during this pandemic?
Pregnancy, birth, and the postpartum period can be an emotionally difficult time under the best of circumstances. Having a baby during the current pandemic can heighten normal worries and concerns for the safety of you and your baby. If you or someone you are close to is experiencing symptoms of depression or anxiety, it is important to ask for help. For additional support and resources in Colorado go to www.postpartum.net/colorado or www.postpartum.net/ayuda (for Spanish) or reach out to your health care provider. There are a number of virtual services available to help support you through this time. If you or someone you know is in immediate danger, please call 911. For additional safety information, contact the National Suicide Prevention Hotline at 1-800-273-8255 or Colorado Crisis Services at 1-844-493-8255.
For additional breastfeeding guidance, visit CDC’s Pregnancy and Breastfeeding website. For the purposes of this information, the term “breastfeeding” is used interchangeably with the term “chestfeeding” to describe the action of feeding a baby human milk, including expressed/pumped milk or directly chest/breastfeeding. The word “chestfeeding” is offered as a different word for people that prefer not to use the word “breast” when referring to their own bodies.
Can I get the COVID-19 vaccine while I’m chest/breastfeeding?
Yes. The COVID-19 vaccines do not pose a risk to lactating people or to babies receiving human milk. The Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine recommends that lactating individuals who get the vaccine continue breastfeeding their babies after being vaccinated. Human milk contains antibodies and other components that can boost babies’ immune systems and protect babies from getting sick. Research has shown COVID-19 antibodies are present in human milk, both after a person is infected with COVID-19 and after a person receives the COVID-19 vaccine. COVID-19 vaccination in the lactating person could provide some protection to the baby.
Discuss the risks and benefits of vaccination with your health care professional. While a conversation with your health care professional is helpful, it is not required to receive a vaccine.
Is it safe to breastfeed my baby if I have or think I may have COVID-19?
Human milk is the best source of nutrition and protects babies from getting sick. Studies suggest human milk does not transmit COVID-19. Breastfeeding helps strengthen your baby’s immune system because human milk contains antibodies and other important components. Research has found COVID-19 antibodies in human milk after a COVID-19 infection and COVID-19 vaccination in the lactating person. However, your baby could get the virus from contact with you or other caregivers. CDC recommends breastfeeding or feeding expressed human milk to your baby while taking precautions to avoid spreading the virus to your baby.
If you are sick or experiencing symptoms, you should take all possible precautions to protect your baby, including washing your hands before and wearing a face mask when you touch your baby. You may chest/breastfeed directly or express your milk for a healthy caregiver to feed to your baby.
Can COVID-19 be given to my baby through human milk?
The limited studies on lactating people with COVID-19 show that human milk is not likely to transmit the virus to your baby. The main concern is the parent or caregiver infecting the baby through respiratory droplets. Precautions should be taken to keep your baby healthy, including washing hands before touching and feeding your baby and wearing a face mask if you are experiencing symptoms or confirmed positive with COVID-19.
Can COVID-19 be given to a caregiver by handling human milk?
The limited studies do not indicate any risk of exposure to COVID-19 through human milk for both the baby and caregivers. Human milk is protective against sicknesses because it contains antibodies and other important components that help keep breastfed babies healthy. Caregivers should wash their hands before and after handling bottles, no matter if the bottle was prepared at home or at a child care facility, or if the bottle contains human milk or infant formula.
What precautions should I take to feed my baby expressed human milk?
If you are sick or choose to express your milk to feed your baby, you can do so with hand expression or a pump (manual or electric). Be sure to use proper hand washing before touching any pump or bottle parts and before expressing your milk. Follow recommendations for proper pump cleaning after each use and thoroughly clean all parts that come into contact with human milk. Clean the pump after each pumping session according to the pump manufacturer’s instructions.
If possible, or if you are too sick to feed your baby, have another healthy person feed your expressed milk to your baby. Be sure everyone feeding your baby follows proper hand hygiene and wears a face mask if experiencing symptoms. To establish and keep your milk supply, it is important to express your milk as often as your baby eats every day, typically 8-12 times in 24 hours for newborns or every 1.5 to 3 hours.
If I am separated from my baby after birth due to COVID-19, can I chest/breastfeed?
If you are temporarily separated from your baby after birth because you are sick with COVID-19 and you intend to chest/breastfeed, you should request lactation support from your hospital and an electric breast pump to help you establish and maintain your milk supply. Expressed human milk should be fed to your baby by a healthy caregiver. Human milk protects babies from getting sick and helps strengthen your baby’s immune system.
Do I need to clean the outside of human milk storage containers (bottles, bags, etc.) prior to feeding?
CDC does not recommend disinfecting human milk containers after pumping or before feeding a baby. It is unnecessary and unsafe to apply chemical disinfectants to milk storage containers. If a hospital is concerned, follow guidance from the Human Milk Banking Association of North America (HMBANA) and use a simple Bottle Transfer Technique.
What if I need help with chest/breastfeeding?
Seek help with chest/breastfeeding, counseling or psychological support, or practical feeding support from appropriately trained health care professionals, lactation consultants, Women, Infants and Children (WIC) Program staff, La Leche League, and community-based peer breastfeeding counselors. You can find lactation support resources, including virtual support groups and counseling sessions, through the hospital where you delivered or any nearby hospital with maternity services (you did not have to deliver at a hospital to get lactation support there). For online lactation resources, visit BreastfeedColorado.com or the Colorado Breastfeeding Coalition.
If I am separated from my baby and need a breast pump, how can I find one?
Pumps can be very useful tools to help establish and increase your milk supply and are often a necessity if you are separated from your baby, whether due to illness like COVID-19 or due to work or school. Insurers are required to provide coverage for breast pumps as part of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). Ask your health insurance provider to determine what pumps are available and how to receive them. If you are on Medicaid or uninsured, you may be able to join the Colorado Women, Infants and Children (WIC) program to receive a pump and related resources, including peer counselors, access to expert lactation support, nutritious food, and more. Sign up to be contacted by WIC or visit ColoradoWIC.com.
How do I keep my pump clean, especially if I have to pump while at work?
In Colorado, all employers are required by law to provide a private space that is not a toilet stall, and paid or unpaid break and/or meal time for employees to express human milk at work. Always wash your hands well before touching any pump or bottle parts. If soap and water are not available, use a hand sanitizer with at least 60% alcohol. If you are using a shared, multi-user breast pump at work, wipe the pump (including dials, power switch and countertop/table) before and after each use with a disinfectant wipe. Follow CDC recommendations for keeping your pump and pump parts clean.